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Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire
Coat of Arms of the Holy Roman Emperors

Holy Roman Empire – The emperor Frederick II is not only Holy Roman emperor; he was also king of southern Italy. This is where he had been brought up, and was his chief concern. While he sought to strengthen his power in Italy, the German magnates were left largely to their own affairs. After his death, the imperial crown fell once again into dispute. The power of the German magnates continued to be enlarged as opposing candidates showered favours and grants on them. The greater magnates came to rule their territories as virtually sovereign princes.

The Golden Bull ended the disputes by requiring that the emperor be elected by the seven leading princes of the empire – a practice which will remain broadly in force for centuries to come. One result is that it ensures that emperors are elected who will not interfere with the autonomy of the princes, by now independent rulers within their own states.

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The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent during the Hohenstaufen dynasty (1155–1268) superimposed on modern state borders

The Hapsburgs are more interested in building up their own family lands than in the thankless task of restoring centralized power to the empire.

Bavarian Circle

Bavaria Duchy, Berchtesgaden Provostry, Freising Prince-Bishopric, (Place) Niedermünster Imperial Abbey, (Place) Obermünster Imperial Abbey (College), Imperial County of Ortenburg, Bavaria-Landshut, (Place) Trausnitz Castle, Regensburg Bishopric, (Settlement) Regensburg Imperial City, Salzburg Archbishopric, (Place) Saint Emmeram’s Abbey, Störnstein County,

Franconian Circle

Ansbach Principality, Bamberg Prince-Bishopric, Bayreuth Principality, Eichstätt, Würzburg Bishopric, Hohenlohe County (Principality), (Settlement) Schwäbisch Hall, (Settlement) NurembergElectorate of Mainz, (Settlement) Erfurt Hanseatic City, (Settlement) Rothenburg ob der Tauber Imperial City, (Settlement) Schweinfurt Imperial City, Seinsheim County, Weißenburg Imperial City, (Settlement) Welzheim, Imperial City, County of Wertheim, Wiesentheid County,(Settlement) Windsheim Town

Lower Saxon Circle

County of Blankenburg , (Settlement) Blankenburg(Capital City), Bremen Archbishopric, Principality, (Settlement) Vörde Town, (Settlement) Bremen Free Hanseatic City, Stade Hanseatic City, Dithmarschen Peasants’ Republic (member of the Hanseatic League.), Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Principality of Calenberg , (Settlement) Hanover City, (Settlement) Gandersheim Town, (Place) Gandersheim Abbey,(Settlement) Goslar Imperial, Hanseatic City, Grubenhagen Principality, Halberstadt Bishopric, (Settlement) Hamburg (Free and Hanseatic City), Bishopric of Hildesheim, County of Holstein, Bishopric of Lübeck, (Settlement) Free and Hanseatic City of LübeckPrincipality of Lüneburg, Archbishopric of Magdeburg, Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, (Settlement) Wismar Hanseatic City,(Settlement) Rostock Hanseatic City, (Place) University of Rostock, Mühlhausen County, Nordhausen, Bishopric of Ratzeburg, County of Regenstein, Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, (Settlement) Brunswick Capital City,

Upper Saxon Circle

Anhalt Principality, Barby County, Brandenburg Margraviate, (Settlement) Berlin Capital Hanseatic City, (Settlement) Frankfurt an der Oder Hanseatic Town, Cammin Bishopric, Hohnstein County, Mansfeld County, Pomerania Duchy, (Settlement) Stralsund Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Demmin Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Greifswald Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Anklam Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Stettin Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Pasewalk Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Kolberg Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Rügenwalde Hanseatic town, (Settlement) Stolp Hanseatic town, Quedlinburg Abbacy, Querfurt Principality, Reuss County, Saxony Electorate, (Settlement) Bedburg Town, Schönburg County, Schwarzburg County, Stolberg County, (Place) Walkenried Abbacy, Wernigerode County

Circle of Swabia

(Settlement) Aalen Imperial City, Augsburg Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Augsburg Imperial City, (Wilderness Area) Baar, Margraviate of BadenBaden-BadenBaindt Imperial Abbey, (Settlement) Biberach an der Riss Imperial City, (Settlement) Bonndorf (Town), (Settlement) Bopfingen Town, Buchau on the Federsee Imperial Abbey, (Settlement) Buchau Imperial City, Constance Prince-Bishopric, Bi-confessional City of Dinkelsbühl Imperial City , County of Eberstein, Elchingen, Reichsabtei Elchingen (Imperial Abbey of the Holy Roman Empire) Esslingen Imperial City, Furstenberg County, (Place) Imperial Abbey of Gengenbach (Imperial Abbey of the Holy Roman Empire), (Settlement) Gengenbach, Giengen Imperial City, (Settlement) Gundelfingen small town, Imperial Abbey of Guntenzell, Imperial Abbey of Heggbach, Reichsabtei Heggbach Imperial Abbey of the Holy Roman Empire (Settlement) Heilbronn Imperial City, Hohengeroldseck County, (Settlement) Irsee (Town), (Settlement) Isny Imperial City Kaisheim County, (Settlement) Kaufbeuren Imperial City, Kempten Prince-Abbacy, (Settlement) Kempten Imperial City, Kinzigtal Lordship, Klettgau Landgraviate, (Settlement) Leutkirch Imperial Town, (Settlement) Lindau Imperial City, Mainau Commandery, (Settlement) Memmingen Imperial City, Meßkirch Lordship, (Settlement) Nördlingen Imperial City, (Place) Ochsenhausen Prince-Abbacy,(Settlement) Offenburg Imperial City, Petershausen Prince-Abbacy, (Settlement) Pfullendorf Imperial City, (Settlement) Ravensburg Imperial City, (Settlement) Reutlingen Imperial City, (Place) Rot an der Rot Prince-Abbacy , Rothenfels County, (Settlement) Rottweil Imperial City, (Place) Salem Prince-Abbacy, (Place) Schussenried Prince-Abbacy (Settlement) Schwäbisch Gmünd Imperial City, (Settlement) Schwäbisch Hall Imperial City, St George in Isny Prince-Abbacy, Staufen Lordship, Stühlingen Landgraviate, Tettnang Lordship, Thannhausen Lordship, (Settlement) Überlingen Imperial City (Settlement) Ulm Imperial City,(Place) Ursberg Prince-Abbacy (Imperial Abbey), Waldburg Archstewardship, (Settlement) Wangen Imperial City, (Settlement) Weil Imperial City, (Place) Weingarten Prince-Abbacy, Weißenau Prince-Abbacy, Wettenhausen Prince-Provostry (Settlement) Wimpfen Imperial City, Württemberg County , (Settlement) Zell am Harmersbach Imperial City, (Place) Zwiefalten Prince-Abbacy ,

(Wilderness Area) Swabian Alps

Upper Rhenish Circle

Basel Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Basel Imperial City, (Settlement) Colmar Imperial City, (Settlement) Frankfurt am Main Imperial City (Settlement) Friedberg Imperial City, Fulda Prince-Abbacy, (Settlement) Haguenau Imperial City, Heitersheim Principality, (Place) Hersfeld Abbacy, Hesse Landgraviate, (Settlement) Kaysersberg Imperial City, Königstein County, (Settlement) Landau Imperial City, Leiningen-Westerburg County, Leiningen-Dagsburg County, Lorraine Duchy, Mensfelden Lordship, Metz Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Metz Imperial City, (Settlement) Munster, Haut-Rhin Imperial City, Nassau-Weilburg County Principality, Nassau-Saarbrücken County, Nomeny Margraviate, Obernai Imperial City, Odenheim Provostry, Olbrück Lordship, Palatinate-Simmern Principality, Palatinate-Zweibrücken Principality, Prüm Abbacy, Reipoltskirchen Lordship, (Settlement) Rosheim Imperial City, Salm County, Savoy Duchy , Sayn-Wittgenstein County, Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg County, (Settlement) Sélestat Imperial City, Solms-Braunfels County, Solms-Lich County, (Settlement) Speyer Imperial City, Sponheim County, Strasbourg Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Strasbourg Imperial City, Toul Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Toul Imperial City, (Settlement) Turckheim Imperial City, Verdun Prince-Bishopric State, (Settlement) Verdun Imperial City, Waldeck County, Wartenberg County, (Settlement) Gelnhausen Imperial City, (Settlement) Wissembourg Imperial City, Wetzlar Imperial City, Worms Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Worms Imperial City

Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle

(Settlement) Aachen Imperial City, Anholt Lordship, Bentheim County Berg Duchy, Blankenheim-Gerolstein County, (Settlement) Brakel Imperial and Free Hanseatic City, Cambrai Prince-Bishopric, Cambray Imperial City, Cleves Duchy, (Settlement) Cologne Imperial City, Kerpen Town , Electorate of Cologne,(Settlement) Nivelles, Corvey Prince-Abbacy, Delmenhorst County, Diepholz County, (Settlement) Dortmund Imperial City, (Settlement) Duisburg Imperial City, (Settlement) Düren Imperial City, East Frisia County, Echternach Prince-Abbacy, Gemen Lordship, Gronsveld Lordship, Herford Prince-Abbacy Nunnery, (Settlement) Herford Imperial City, Holzappel County, Hoya State of the Holy Roman Empire, Jülich Duchy Kerpen and Lommersum Lordship Kornelimünster Prince-Abbacy Lemgo Imperial City Liège Prince-Bishopric, Lingen County, Lippe Lordship Luxemburg Duchy, Manderscheid County, Mark County, Myllendonk Lordship, Minden Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Minden City, Moers County, Münster Prince-Bishopric, Nassau-Dillenburg County, Nassau-Diez County, Oldenburg County, Osnabrück Prince-Bishopric Paderborn Prince-Bishopric Pyrmont County, Ravensberg County, Reckheim County, Reichenstein Lordship Rietberg County, Sayn County, Schaumburg County, Schaumburg-Hesse County, Schaumburg-Lippe County, Schleiden County, (Settlement) Soest Imperial Hanseatic City, Spiegelberg County, Stavelot-Malmedy Prince-Abbacy, Tecklenburg County, Thorn Prince-Abbacy, Utrecht Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Utrecht City, Verden Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Verden Imperial City, Virneburg County, Warburg Imperial City, Werden Prince-Abbacy, (Settlement) Wesel Imperial City, Wickrath County, Wied County,

Austrian Circle

An der Etsch Bailiwick, Austria Archduchy, Austria Bailiwick Brixen Prince-Bishopric, Carinthia Duchy, Carniola Duchy, Chur Prince-Bishopric
Gorizia County, Styria Duchy, Swabian Austria Landgraviate, Tarasp Lordship, Trent Prince-Bishopric, (Settlement) Trieste City, Tyrol County, (Settlement) Vienna(Capital City), Kulmbach Capital City, Kingdom of Bohemia, (Settlement) Prague Capital City, (Settlement) Breslau Hanseatic City, Bouillon Duchy, (Settlement) Breda, (Settlement) Magdeburg Free and Hanseatic City, (Settlement) Lüneburg Hanseatic Town, Munich Capital City, Burgundy County, (Settlement) Dole Capital City, Burtscheid Abbey Imperial Abbey, (Capital City) Sankt Veit an der Glan, Chiemsee Bishopric, Cleves(Capital City), Comburg Abbey Imperial Abbey, Diessenhofen, Disentis, Imperial Abbey, (Place)Frankenstein Castle, (Wilderness Area) The Odenwald, (Wilderness Area) Black Forest, (Trade Route) Via Imperii (The Imperial Road),

Republic of the Swiss

Canton of Uri, Canton of Zürich, Canton of Appenzell, Canton of Bern, Canton of Lucerne, Canton of Schwyz, Canton of Unterwalden, Half-Canton of Obwalden, Half-Canton of Nidwalden, Canton of Glarus, Canton of Zug, (Wilderness Area) Lake Zürich

(Wilderness Area) Alps, (Wilderness Area) Lake Geneva

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